"The Effects of Rural Household Electrification on Children's Schooling and Work in Brazil"
Abstract: This paper examines the development effects of rural household electrification, focusing on school attendance and different types of work of children in Brazil during the period between 1991 and 2000. Using Brazilian Census data and an instrumented electricity measure, I estimate short-run effects of household electricity service on school attendance, market and non market working status, and housework inside the home done by girls. I find that household electricity service raises school attendance and reduces the likelihood that a girl stays home from school to do housework her own home. Household electricity also increases the probability of working for pay for both genders and makes boys less likely to do unpaid work to help family farm or enterprise. The findings suggest implications for behavioral responses of rural households in middle-income countries to household technical changes—people choose to invest in children's human capital, and increase market labor of children for both genders, which substitutes non market labor including housework of girls and boys' unpaid work at family farm or firms.